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Resources from Other Organizations

Density and Floor Area Ratio

This report from the City of Boulder offers a list of FARs for residential, commercial, mixed use, and industrial development. FAR's are supplemented with site plans and aerial and ground level photos to show similar FAR's occupy space in different ways. The introduction also provides a comprehensive set of key terms to frame the discussion. It is important to note that this report is broken down by low, medium, and high densities, which are determined by the city's comprehensive plan.

This report for the City of Palo Alto not only defines FAR and differentiates it from density and site size, but it also discusses the limitations associated with it as a sole measuring tool, which includes problems with consistent application and design issues.

Affordable Housing

Transit Oriented Development

This paper looks at TOD within a historic context and it offers a performance oriented definition rather than physical form and project relations, which includes the following functions/outcomes: location efficiency, value recapture, livability, financial return, choice and efficient regional land use patterns. It states that not all TOD is a “panacea” and it also identifies challenges and gives recommendations for more viable TOD strategies.

This TOD paper identifies supporting trends, design features, perceived benefits, performance criteria and challenges such as financial risks to developers, initial public investments costs, unsupportive regulatory frameworks, and community resistance. It also offer s community planning approaches related to financial methods, coordinating stakeholders, tailoring land use regulations, adapting transit to suburbia, etc.

This PowerPoint from the City of Saint Paul 's Department of Planning and Economic Development is an overview that briefly identifies TOD and its characteristics, challenges, benefits, opportunities, and assessment factors.

This site lists guides, studies, articles, plans, and ordinance examples related to TOD and to its supporting market forces.

This is a basic presentation on TOD. Some of the research referred to is not cited; however, it is a good overview for those just needing to be introduced to TOD.

Traffic and High Density Housing

This article discusses the Location Efficiency Mortgage (LEM), which is a financing tool used in some cities for low and moderate income borrowers who want to live in transit-supported urban areas. It looks at LEM's relationship to smart growth goals, how the tool is used, and the challenges associated with pushing for its expansion.

This article examines travel and residential location patterns for households in numerous communities in California. It concludes that household transportation costs are linked with urban form features like residential density and transit accessibility.

Demographics and Housing Intensification

This paper looks at how shifts in household demographics affect housing preferences and residential location decisions in metropolitan areas. It identifies current and projected changes in the nation's population and households; addresses current and projected changes in the location of households; and offers additional research suggestions.

This paper primarily looks at how the population increases of Asians, Hispanics, and African Americans have affected the change in household composition and household consumption. It should be noted that much of this is national research and the impact on the regional/local level may differ for communities.

Multifamily rental housing is the second most prevalent combination of tenure and structure, following only single-family homeownership. The purposes of this article are to describe apartment residents today, discuss how they have changed recently in number and characteristics, explain how apartment renters may evolve in the future, and highlight some of the business and policy implications of future changes.

This study outlines senior population and housing trends for seven Twin Cities, Minnesota, counties. It focuses on demographics that shape senior housing options and decisions, such as income trends, disability rates, household size, and home ownership rates. The report also includes an inventory of senior housing facilities in each of the seven Twin Cities area counties.

This is an example of a county in Maryland that created a master plan to prepare for an increase in senior residents. It looks at existing housing, new housing, affordability, financial and regulatory incentives, design requirements and suggestions. It also has a series of images that give different options for how it looks.